February 13, 2016 Penn Museum:
Geraldine Ann Patrick Encina, Scholar-in-Residence, Union
Theological Seminary: "The Long Count in the function of the Haab'
and its Venus-Moon Relation: Application in Chichén Itzá"
Morning Workshop "Revisiting the Correlation Problem"
Afternoon Lecture "A comparative analysis of GMT and Patrick (2013)
In a 2-hour workshop, Dr. Patrick outlined the structures of
the Maya calendars and the issues related to the correlation
problem. She provided a beautifully
illustrated workbook, with extensive information on the Long
Count and correlation factors.
She then presented a lecture on her proposed solution to the
Mesoamerican accounting of the tropical year: the addition of an
uncounted quarter day each solar year, through the directional
rotation of the year-bearers, which allows ahaab’ of 365 k’in
(calendar days) to equate to the tropical year of 365.25 days, and
a thirteen-year suspension of such directional rotation at the
close of every Bak’tun to achieve an average year of 365.2423
days. Originally based on insights from her ethnological research
into contemporary indigenous Mesoamerican thought and ritual, Dr.
Patrick’s solution is supported by numerous astronomical dates
from the pre-Hispanic Maya inscriptions and codices, including the
Dresden Eclipse Table.
Geraldine Ann Patrick Encina is a member of the Otomi-Hñahñu
Regional Council in Mexico, and a professor of ethnoecology.
Born to Chilean parents of Celtic and Mapuche origins, Patrick
Encina received her doctorate in ethnoecology and social
sciences from El Colegio Mexiquense, A. C. in 2007; she also
holds a bachelor’s degree in biological sciences. She has been
a visiting professor in Honduras and Argentina, and held
faculty positions at several Mexican universities. Her
research focuses on archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy,
particularly on ancestral and current ways of measuring and
conceiving time and natural cycles in Mesoamerica, especially
among Maya, Nahua and Otomian cultures. She will serve as a
Scholar-in-Residence at the Center for Earth Ethics at Union
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