May 9, 2015 Gregory D. Lockard, PhD, Senior Consultant, Enviromental Resources Management, Washington, D.C.: "The Peru Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Archaeological Project's Contribution to World Heritage"

            The PERU LNG Project involved the construction of a natural gas pipeline, liquefaction plant, and marine terminal to load liquid natural gas (LNG) ships.  The Project also involved the use of a quarry to obtain rocks for the construction of a breakwater at the marine terminal.  The PERU LNG plant is the first natural gas liquefaction plant in South America.  The pipeline extends from the community of Chiquintirca in Ayacucho to the plant and marine terminal at Melchorita, which is located on the Pacific coast approximately 170 km south of Lima.  The pipeline extends for 408 km and passes through the departments of Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima.  It ranges in elevation from approximately 150 meters above sea level at the plant to over 4900 meters, making in the highest natural gas pipeline in the world.
            The principal objective of the PERU LNG Archaeological Project was to obtain permits from the Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC), which was Peru’s archaeology authority at the time, for the construction of the plant, quarry, and pipeline.  As one of the largest archaeological investigations in the history of Peru, the project included surveys, site evaluations, rescue (i.e., data recovery) excavations, and archaeological monitoring.  A total of 137 archaeological sites were rescued, and an additional 140 sites were investigated as chance finds (i.e., inadvertent discoveries) under archaeological monitoring plans.  Sites ranged from major archaeological complexes to very small artifact scatters.
            This talk presented an introduction to the regulations that require archaeological investigations on development projects in Peru, followed by the results of the PERU LNG Archaeological Project.  The latter focused on the four major complexes that were investigated: Pumapuquio, a highland Wari residential and administrative center; Corpas, a highland Warpa/Wari agricultural, residential, and ritual center; Rumajasa, a highland Wari/Chanka funerary site; and Bernales, a coastal Chincha site associated with a small adobe platform mound. The talk also included a brief overview of settlement pattern analyses conducted by the presenter based on data from the project.  Because every site discovered in the affected area was fully excavated, regardless of its size, integrity, or significance, the Project produced a complete archaeological picture of the ancient cultural landscape of the affected area and the results have contributed significantly to our understanding of Peru's past.   
            Greg Lockard received his PhD in Anthropology from the University of New Mexico in 2005. His graduate studies focused on the Moche and Chimu cultures of the north coast of Peru. His dissertation was on Political Power and Economy at the Archaeological Site of Galindo, Moche Valley, Peru. From 2011 to 2014, he led a multidisciplinary team providing all cultural resources support for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Responses along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. Archaeological surveys conducted during the project identified 115 new sites and revisited 447 previously recorded sites. The project also involved a detailed investigation and assessment of Fort Livingston, a Civil War era fort. From 2008 to 2011, he served as the lead archaeologist for the PERU LNG Project. He is currently a Senior Consultant at Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in Washington, D.C.

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